학술논문

개화사상의 대외 인식과 그 대응
The Perception of Enlightenment Thought about Modern World and Their Responses in Korea
Document Type
Article
Text
Source
태동고전연구, 12/30/2004, Vol. 20, p. 47-123
Subject
실학
위정척사
동도서기
변법개화
화이관
근대화정책
제국주의
Confucianism
Western impact
Sirhak(Practical Learning)
Enlightenment Thought
modernization policies
imperialism
Language
Korean
ISSN
1225-9152
Abstract
Western impact played an important role in the formation of Sirhak(Practical Learning), and a central role in the formation of Enlightenment Thought, in the Late Yi Dynasty. Not only the foreign impact but also the Sirhak contributed to the formation of Enlightenment Thought. Persons educated by Sirhak could become Enlightenment thinkers easily. Enlightenment Thought contributed to the opening doors to Japan and Western countries, and was embodied by modernization policies since 1879. Enlightenment Thought was divided by the conservative party that dung to Confucian morals, tried to introduce modern technology, but was passive in institutional transformation, and the progressive party that was active in not only introducing modern technology but also transforming institutions. Both the conservative party and the progressive party did not presuppose agricultural society, but the conservative party intended to maintain the traditional monarchism and the traditional Chinese world order unlike the progressive party. Policies transforming institutions to induce free competition and property rights had priority in the progressive party, while policies promoting modern industries had priority in the conservative party. The failure of independent modernization can be explained not only by the severe and unfavorable foreign environment but also by the weak internal capabilities such as the poor public financial abilities, the poor capital, the inefficient bureaucracies, the inability to make representative government and so on. But the Korean contact with modern world and its experience of modernization before the colonization contributed to the modernization and industrialization in the 20th century. Though the Confucian fundamentalists foretold the imperial aggression better than the Enlightenment thinkers, they did not have the scientific ground, and did not know the benefits from relations with modern world.